Artificial Intelligence or AI means intelligence which is created by humans. Before Artificial Intelligence we had natural intelligence, which is created by god and given to all living beings. Artificial Intelligence is also called as machine intelligence. In Artificial Intelligence we make machines and technologies which are capable to study first and then perform accordingly rather then performing over instructions given by us.
“I visualize a time when we will be to robots what dogs are to humans, and I’m rooting for the machines.”
– Claude Shannon
There is another field or domain in computer science which we usually hear i.e. Machine Learning. Machine Learning is a part of Artificial Intelligence. In other words, we say that Machine Learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence.
Understanding Artificial Intelligence in More Details
Intelligence means the ability to find solution to a problem by planning, thinking and calculating. These things are done over your current situation. Therefore, Intelligence helps to decide whether to do different things for same situation or same thing for different situations. Now we go ahead to understand components of Artificial Intelligence.
There are 4 Components of Artificial Intelligence i.e. Learning, Reasoning, Problem Solving and Perception. Let us understand each components in brief.
Learning means remembering a fact and process. One can do it in many ways. First is Trial and Error method and second is study and analysis. Trial and Error is done by performing all the possibilities and then coming to a solution after studying them. While in Study and Analysis, you first study all the possibilities and then perform them.
In Short, Trial and Error means perform and then study while study and analysis means, study and then perform. Hence both are opposite to each other. Another type of learning is generalization. Generalization means giving knowledge of some general facts from which various other facts can be understood and then accordingly perform it.
For example, you train a kid with identifying all colors and identifying shapes of things. Then you train with with how to mention a shape with a color. Therefore, in future using generalization when a kid observes a shape and a color, then he/she will be able to form a sentence and mention them.
Reasoning means extracting some new information from current information which you are studying. It is of two types i.e. Deductive, Inductive, Abductive. Deductive Reasoning means you first check the fact and then draw the results. While in case of Inductive Learning, you first check the results and then draw the facts.
For example you are seeing a rain and find that the grass gets wet due to rain. So you can perform both Inductive and Deductive Reasoning at same time. In Deductive you mention that – ‘Since it is raining therefore the grass is wet’. Whereas in Inductive you mention that – ‘Since the grass is wet, therefore rain has fallen’.
Artificial Intelligence performs Reasoning using logic and codes that we write in a computer program. One can design algorithms for reasoning.
3. Problem Solving
Let us take a simple example of problem solving in which we need to find 2 numbers whose sum is 17. For that we consider all possible first numbers and second numbers to obtain the result.
Therefore, in this way from problem solving, we find two solutions i.e. 8, 9 and 9, 8.
Perception means the ability to see, hear, feel, taste, smell, etc. In human body, we can perceive trough our sensory organs like eyes, ears, hands, tongue and nose. In Artificial Intelligence perception is done using various sensors like camera sensors, audio sensors, motion sensors, thermal sensors, etc. Through perception, we understand the environment and perform actions accordingly.
OK! we have now briefly understood the components of artificial intelligence to find out how exactly it is. But here lies a question. What do we get from Artificial Intelligence? Because there is no existence of concepts with its underlying benefits. Now let us understand the benefits in next section.
Benefits of Artificial Intelligence
There are different interpretations over describing its benefits which are somewhat same as well as different from each other. There are some surprising benefits of AI while there are benefits along with harms of AI to the society. So, lets just focus on the benefits.
1. Increase in Employment
There are some myths that Artificial Intelligence will steal the jobs. Companies, Industries, Factories will replace humans with machines. But it is not the case. Instead employment will relatively increase. This is because the amount of employees required to handle AI equipment will be more than the amount of employees being replaced by these equipment.
Artificial Intelligence technologies are so complex that you require a hierarchy of teams to handle various components of AI machines. A separate team to operate the machines, analyse the results, make understandable reports from results, perform maintenance activities, etc.
2. Reducing or Eliminating Mistakes Made by Humans
As humans, we have a tendency to make mistakes. This is not in case of Artificial Intelligence Machines. Because being a machine, they perform tasks based on memory and instructions. Further, They are intact in their storage disks unlike us where we study one thing and forget within minutes, hours or days.
3. Reducing Workload from Humans
There are various activities one needs to do repeatedly in industries. Examples of these activities are verifying documents, conducting meetings, monitoring equipment, making reports, providing guidance, training, etc. Therefore, using learning, reasoning and problem solving capabilities with nature of a machine, AI can easily perform all these activities with accuracy, speed and trust.
4. Improving Healthcare Facilities
Due to accuracy in AI machines, they are capable to perform surgeries and micro-surgeries with precise use of surgical instruments to operate on small human organs. Not only this, Artificial Intelligence are also capable of giving advice to patients regarding medicines, life-styles, regular diets, exercising, etc to improve their health and cure diseases.
5. Continuous Improvement in AI to Handle More Complex Tasks
Artificial Intelligence is not only sustaining but is also improving. One can design more optimized, sophisticated, intelligent algorithms for AI Programs. They find solutions to problems more effectively and efficiently in timely manner. Artificial intelligence is also developing in terms of solving large and complex problems by dividing it into smaller and simpler problems, finding solutions of each and integrating solution sets into a single and final solution.
Such improvements will make AI capable of handling tasks at national and international level like conducting census, handling railways and airways record, school and college records, etc across the country.
6. Economical use of Energy Resources and Maintaining Work Environment
Artificial Intelligence are not only capable of performing large and complex tasks, but are also capable to reserve various energy resources like electricity and fuel. In Industries, Companies and Factories, AI can monitor the use of fans, lights, heaters, coolers, Air Conditioners, etc by checking whether humans are present or not. In case if Humans are not present, then it will accordingly switch off the appliances to conserve energy.
Artificial Intelligence will also monitor the suitable temperatures of working. AI will do this by storing the data of suitable temperature and monitor the current working temperature and number of employees. Based on this data, AI will adjust temperature, humidity of air conditioners accordingly.
7. Improving Personal Life Experiences
Artificial Intelligence not only helps in doing professional works but can also can entertain you. You can play games with them. For example, an AI capable of playing Chess named AlphaZero. You can compete against AI in which you can either win from AI or AI can win from you.
Computer Games like Grand Theft Auto uses Artificial Intelligence. The player can go in front of citizen and can talk to them by pressing a button. The player will experience random conversations with citizens which is very real. It is so real that by sitting in India, you can know the culture and the way people talk in United States of America.
Main advantage here is that since AI doesn’t feel fatigue, hence you can involve them for longer periods of time. This may not be possible with friends and family, in which they feel tired or need to take out their time for involving with you.
So, the above benefits provided by Artificial Intelligence will change the world, if implemented properly. Talking about implementation, we can find out whether AI is implemented or not by seeing its applications.
Artificial Intelligence Applications
1. Personal Assistance
Technologies built for Personal Assistance are Siri, Alexa, Cogito, Boxever, Amazon.com, Netflix, Pandora and Nest. Apple made Siri and Amazon made Alexa. These technologies also works on emotional aspects of a person. You will feel like these machines also have feelings. This is because, they are capable of expressing itself with emotional intelligence.
2. Fraud Detection
This application is for banks. Manufacturers train these technologies to detect any illegal transactions taking place. They feed the machines with data and process of legal and illegal transactions. Based on 100% cross match, the AI will alarm the security to take actions against fraudulent activities. Also these technologies are regularly fed with new transaction processes and schemes to keep updated.
3. Consumer Support
Artificial Intelligence is used by consumer support by creating messaging applications on which chat-bots are assigned. When you use the messenger and send messages, chat-bots will receive it. Since, they are capable of understanding your language, hence they respond with a satisfactory answer. They help you by noting down your complain, searching for your product you like, explaining the product, directing you towards correct references.
4. Self-Driving Cars
Google is already working on self-driving cars. They tested these cars by running million of kilometers. You can assign a destination location on its interface and the vehicle drops you on destination with correct location. These vehicles can even pick you up from your destination to home. The vehicle is equipped with number of camera sensors. These sensors are capable to detect obstacles around all angles of vehicle and accordingly maneuver them.
Self-Driving Cars are highly useful for small children for dropping them to school and picking. Similarly, it is also useful for senior citizens.
Artificial Intelligence is capable of providing robots and drones. They will replace all manpower required to complete agricultural activities like preparing lands, seeding the land, fertilizing it, extracting properly grown crops, filtering dust from crops, etc.
These machines will contain camera sensors which can also monitor the fertility of soil and quality of crops. Also, you can use them to detect whether crops are fresh or stale.